——————————————————————————————————-

Leo ni siku ya mwisho ya mwezi wa toba, Idi ni kesho katika nchi nyingi za Kiislamu Print E-mail
Thursday, 09 September 2010
Sample ImageNchi nyingi za Kiislamu zimetangaza kwamba sikukuu ya Idil Fitri itafanyika kesho Ijumaa tarehe 30 Ramadhani na kwamba Alkhamisi ya leo ndiyo siku ya mwisho wa mwezi wa toba na kujikurubisha kwa Mwenyezi Mungu (SW). Nchi mbalimbali za Kiislamu kama Misri, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Iraq na Syria zimetangaza kuwa Alkhamisi ya leo inakamilisha mwezi mtukufu wa Ramadhani na kwamba sikukuu ya Idil Fitri itakuwa kesho. Taasisi husika katika nchi hizo zimetangaza kwamba mwezi mwandamo haukuonekana jana jioni katika maeneo hayo na kwa msingi huo leo ni siku ya mwisho ya mwezi wa rehma na baraka wa Ramadhani.
Sikukuu ya Idil Fitri imeanza leo Alkhamisi nchini Libya na katika baadhi ya nchi Ulaya. Vilevile baadhi ya Waislamu wa Lebanon wamenza kusherehekea Idi hii leo.
Nchini Iran sikukuu ya idil Fitri itafanyika kesho Ijumaa kama ilivyo katika nchi nyingi za Kiislamu.
Tunamuomba Mwenyezi Mungu SW atakabali ibada na amali zetu katika mwezi huu unaomalizika wa Ramadhani.

———————————————————————————————–

ZAKAATUL-FITRI.

ZAKAATUL-FITRI NI NINI?

Zakaatul-fitri ni kile chakula au thamani ya chakula hicho anachokitoa mtu ndani ya mwezi wa Ramadhani na kuwapa mafakiri na wenye shida kabla ya Eidil-Fitri.

NINI HUKUMU YAKE?

Zakaatul-Fitri ni FARDHI mbele ya kundi kubwa la wanazuoni (jopo la wataalamu wa fani ya Fiq-hi). Ufaradhi huu unatokana na hadithi iliyopokelewa kutoka kwa Ibn Umar-Allah awawiye radhi-kwamba yeye amesema: “Mtume wa Allah-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-AMEFARADHISHA Zakaatul-Fitri ya Ramadhani. Pishi ya tende au pishi ya shayiri, kwa mtumwa na muungwana, mwanamume na mwanamke, mtoto na mkubwa katika waislamu. Na ameamrisha itolewe kabla ya watu kutoka kwenda kuswali (yaani swala ya Eid)”. Bukhaariy & Muslim

Bwana Mtume ameifaradhisha Zakaatul-Fitri na kuamrisha itolewe katika mwaka ule ule uliofaradhishwa swaumu ya Ramadhani. Yaani katika mwezi wa Shaaban, mwaka wa pili wa Hijrah.

NINI FALSAFA/HEKIMA YAKE?

Zakaatul-Fitri imefaradhishwa kwa hekima nyingi, miongoni mwake ni:-

Kuwasaidia wenye shida katika siku ya sikukuu ili furaha ienee kwa watu wote.

Kuunga mapungufu na kuziba makosa yanayoweza kuwa yamemtokea mtu katika swaumu yake.

Haya tunayafahamu kupitia hadithi ya Ibn Abbas-Allah awawiye radhi-kwamba yeye amesema: “Mtume wa Allah-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-alifaradhisha Zakaatul-Fitri ili kumtwaharisha mfungaji kutokana na maneno na matendo machafu. Na ili iwe chakula kwa masikini, atakayeitoa kabla ya swala basi hiyo ndiyo zaka yenye kukubaliwa. Na atakayeitoa baada ya swala, basi hiyo ni sadaka kama sadaka nyinginezo”. Abuu Daawoud

INAMUWAJIBIKIA NANI?

Zakaatul-Fitri ni wajibu kwa kila muislamu, mwenye uwezo wa kutoa hata kama hamiliki kiwango cha zaka ya fardhi. Mwenye kumiliki chakula chake na familia yake cha siku ya Eid, kinachozidi hapo ni wajibu akitoe kama Zakaatul-Fitri. Atajitolea yeye mwenyewe na watu wote ambao chakula chao cha kila siku kinamuwajibikia yeye. Hawa ni pamoja na wanawe ambao bado wanamtegemea yeye, wazazi wake, mkewe na wale wote walio chini ya ulezi wake kwa njia ya wajibu na wala sio kwa njia ya ihsaani/ khiari.

NINI KITOLEWACHO?

Zimepokewa hadithi nyingi sahihi zinazoweka wazi alichowaamrisha Mtume wa Allah-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-maswahaba wake kukitoa kwa ajili ya Zakaatul-Fitri. Miongoni mwa hadithi hizo ni ile iliyopokelewa kutoka kwa Abuu Saaid Al-khudriy-Allah amuwiye radhi-amesema: “Tulikuwa wakati alipokuwa miongoni mwetu Mtume wa Allah-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-tukimtolea Zakaatul-Fitri kila mkubwa na mdogo. Kibaba cha chakula, au kibaba cha shayiri, au kibaba cha zabibu au kibaba cha maziwa ya unga”. Bukhaariy & Muslim

Na imepokelewa kutoka kwa Abdillah Ibn Tha’alabah-Allah amuwiye radhi-amesema: “Mtume wa Allah-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-alikhutubu siku moja au mbili kabla ya Eid akasema: Toeni kibaba cha ngano, au kibaba cha tende au cha shayiri. (Mtoleeni) kila muungwana au mtumwa, mkubwa au mtoto”. Abuu Daawoud

Mafaqihi wamesema mazingatio katika kutoa ni kuangalia chakula rasmi cha mahala husika, chakula kitumiwacho katika dhifa na shughuli zao mbali mbali. Na kibaba kwa kipimo cha kilogramu ni sawa na ¾ ya kilogramu moja. Hiki ndicho kipimo kinachopaswa kutolewa kwa kila kichwa kimoja.

ITOLEWE LINI?

Wakati bora kabisa wa kutoa Zakaatul-Fitri ni ule usiku wa kuamkia siku ya Eid. Na ni wajibu itolewe kabla ya kuswaliwa swala ya Eid. Na wajibu wa kutoa haupomoki/hauondoki kwa sababu ya kuchelewa kutoa. Bali itakuwa ni deni iliyo katika dhima ya aliyewajibikiwa kutoa. Na itamlazimu kulipa deni hilo hata mwishoni mwa umri wake, kwa sababu aliwajibikiwa na akafanya uzembe kutoa. Na haisihi kuchelewa kutoa bila ya dharura na ni haramu kisheria. Kwa sababu ucheleweshaji huu unapelekea kupotea kwa lengo la utoaji wake ambalo ni kuondosha uhitaji wa masikini katika siku ile ya furaha. Ambao Bwana Mtume-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-amelizungumzia suala lao kwa kusema: “Watosheeni na udhalili wa kuomba katika siku hii”. Yaani siku ya Edil-Fitri.

APEWE NANI?

Wanaopaswa kupewa Zakaatul-Fitri ni wale wale wenye sifa ya kupewa Zaka ya faradhi ambao wametajwa katika kauli yake Allah: “SADAKA HUPEWA (watu hawa): MAFAKIRI NA MASIKINI NA WANAOZITUMIKIA NA WANAOTIWA NGUVU NYOYO ZAO (juu ya Uislamu) NA KATIKA KUWAPA UUNGWANA WATUMWA NA KATIKA KUWASAIDIA WENYE DENI NA KATIKA (kutengeneza) MAMBO ALIYOAMRISHA ALLAH NA KATIKA (kupewa) WASAFIRI (walioharibikiwa) NI FARDHI INAYOTOKA KWA ALLAH, NA ALLAH NI MJUZI (na) MWENYE HEKIMA”. [9:60]

Lakini masikini na mafakiri ndio walengwa khasa wa Zaakatul-Fitri kuliko mafungu mengine yaliyotajwa

ZAKAATUL-FITRI.

ZAKAATUL-FITRI NI NINI?

Zakaatul-fitri ni kile chakula au thamani ya chakula hicho anachokitoa mtu ndani ya mwezi wa Ramadhani na kuwapa mafakiri na wenye shida kabla ya Eidil-Fitri.

NINI HUKUMU YAKE?

Zakaatul-Fitri ni FARDHI mbele ya kundi kubwa la wanazuoni (jopo la wataalamu wa fani ya Fiq-hi). Ufaradhi huu unatokana na hadithi iliyopokelewa kutoka kwa Ibn Umar-Allah awawiye radhi-kwamba yeye amesema: “Mtume wa Allah-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-AMEFARADHISHA Zakaatul-Fitri ya Ramadhani. Pishi ya tende au pishi ya shayiri, kwa mtumwa na muungwana, mwanamume na mwanamke, mtoto na mkubwa katika waislamu. Na ameamrisha itolewe kabla ya watu kutoka kwenda kuswali (yaani swala ya Eid)”. Bukhaariy & Muslim

Bwana Mtume ameifaradhisha Zakaatul-Fitri na kuamrisha itolewe katika mwaka ule ule uliofaradhishwa swaumu ya Ramadhani. Yaani katika mwezi wa Shaaban, mwaka wa pili wa Hijrah.

NINI FALSAFA/HEKIMA YAKE?

Zakaatul-Fitri imefaradhishwa kwa hekima nyingi, miongoni mwake ni:-

Kuwasaidia wenye shida katika siku ya sikukuu ili furaha ienee kwa watu wote.

Kuunga mapungufu na kuziba makosa yanayoweza kuwa yamemtokea mtu katika swaumu yake.

Haya tunayafahamu kupitia hadithi ya Ibn Abbas-Allah awawiye radhi-kwamba yeye amesema: “Mtume wa Allah-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-alifaradhisha Zakaatul-Fitri ili kumtwaharisha mfungaji kutokana na maneno na matendo machafu. Na ili iwe chakula kwa masikini, atakayeitoa kabla ya swala basi hiyo ndiyo zaka yenye kukubaliwa. Na atakayeitoa baada ya swala, basi hiyo ni sadaka kama sadaka nyinginezo”. Abuu Daawoud

INAMUWAJIBIKIA NANI?

Zakaatul-Fitri ni wajibu kwa kila muislamu, mwenye uwezo wa kutoa hata kama hamiliki kiwango cha zaka ya fardhi. Mwenye kumiliki chakula chake na familia yake cha siku ya Eid, kinachozidi hapo ni wajibu akitoe kama Zakaatul-Fitri. Atajitolea yeye mwenyewe na watu wote ambao chakula chao cha kila siku kinamuwajibikia yeye. Hawa ni pamoja na wanawe ambao bado wanamtegemea yeye, wazazi wake, mkewe na wale wote walio chini ya ulezi wake kwa njia ya wajibu na wala sio kwa njia ya ihsaani/ khiari.

NINI KITOLEWACHO?

Zimepokewa hadithi nyingi sahihi zinazoweka wazi alichowaamrisha Mtume wa Allah-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-maswahaba wake kukitoa kwa ajili ya Zakaatul-Fitri. Miongoni mwa hadithi hizo ni ile iliyopokelewa kutoka kwa Abuu Saaid Al-khudriy-Allah amuwiye radhi-amesema: “Tulikuwa wakati alipokuwa miongoni mwetu Mtume wa Allah-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-tukimtolea Zakaatul-Fitri kila mkubwa na mdogo. Kibaba cha chakula, au kibaba cha shayiri, au kibaba cha zabibu au kibaba cha maziwa ya unga”. Bukhaariy & Muslim

Na imepokelewa kutoka kwa Abdillah Ibn Tha’alabah-Allah amuwiye radhi-amesema: “Mtume wa Allah-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-alikhutubu siku moja au mbili kabla ya Eid akasema: Toeni kibaba cha ngano, au kibaba cha tende au cha shayiri. (Mtoleeni) kila muungwana au mtumwa, mkubwa au mtoto”. Abuu Daawoud

Mafaqihi wamesema mazingatio katika kutoa ni kuangalia chakula rasmi cha mahala husika, chakula kitumiwacho katika dhifa na shughuli zao mbali mbali. Na kibaba kwa kipimo cha kilogramu ni sawa na ¾ ya kilogramu moja. Hiki ndicho kipimo kinachopaswa kutolewa kwa kila kichwa kimoja.

ITOLEWE LINI?

Wakati bora kabisa wa kutoa Zakaatul-Fitri ni ule usiku wa kuamkia siku ya Eid. Na ni wajibu itolewe kabla ya kuswaliwa swala ya Eid. Na wajibu wa kutoa haupomoki/hauondoki kwa sababu ya kuchelewa kutoa. Bali itakuwa ni deni iliyo katika dhima ya aliyewajibikiwa kutoa. Na itamlazimu kulipa deni hilo hata mwishoni mwa umri wake, kwa sababu aliwajibikiwa na akafanya uzembe kutoa. Na haisihi kuchelewa kutoa bila ya dharura na ni haramu kisheria. Kwa sababu ucheleweshaji huu unapelekea kupotea kwa lengo la utoaji wake ambalo ni kuondosha uhitaji wa masikini katika siku ile ya furaha. Ambao Bwana Mtume-Rehema na Amani zimshukie-amelizungumzia suala lao kwa kusema: “Watosheeni na udhalili wa kuomba katika siku hii”. Yaani siku ya Edil-Fitri.

APEWE NANI?

Wanaopaswa kupewa Zakaatul-Fitri ni wale wale wenye sifa ya kupewa Zaka ya faradhi ambao wametajwa katika kauli yake Allah: “SADAKA HUPEWA (watu hawa): MAFAKIRI NA MASIKINI NA WANAOZITUMIKIA NA WANAOTIWA NGUVU NYOYO ZAO (juu ya Uislamu) NA KATIKA KUWAPA UUNGWANA WATUMWA NA KATIKA KUWASAIDIA WENYE DENI NA KATIKA (kutengeneza) MAMBO ALIYOAMRISHA ALLAH NA KATIKA (kupewa) WASAFIRI (walioharibikiwa) NI FARDHI INAYOTOKA KWA ALLAH, NA ALLAH NI MJUZI (na) MWENYE HEKIMA”. [9:60]

Lakini masikini na mafakiri ndio walengwa khasa wa Zaakatul-Fitri kuliko mafungu mengine yaliyotajwa

——————————————————————————————-

Zakat-ul-Fitr

http://www.islamonline.net/

The Purpose of Zakat-ul-Fitr

Every Muslim is required to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr at the conclusion of the month of Ramadan as a token of thankfulness to God for having enabled him to observe fasts. Its purpose is to purify those who fast from any indecent act or speech and to help the poor and needy.[1] This view is based upon the hadith which reads, “The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, enjoined Zakat-ul-Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. It is accepted as Zakah for the one who pays it before the `Eid prayer, and it is sadaqah for the one who pays it after the prayer.”[2] Al-Qaradawi comments on this hadith by saying that there are two purposes: one is related to the individual; for completion of his fast and compensation for any shortcomings in his acts or speech. The other is related to society; for the spreading of love and happiness among its members, particularly the poor and needy, during the day of `Eid.[3] It also purifies one’s soul from such shortcomings as the adoration of property, and from miserliness. Furthermore, it purifies one’s property from the stain of unlawful earnings. It is also a cure for ailments.[4] The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “It would be better that you treat your patients with charity.”[5]

In addition, it provides for the needs of the poor and the indigent and relieves them from having to ask others for charity on the day of `Eid.[6] The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Fulfil their need on this day (i.e., the day of `Eid)”[7]

Who must pay Zakat-ul-Fitr

Zakat-ul-Fitr is incumbent on every free Muslim who possesses one Sa` of dates or barley which is not needed as basic food for himself or his family for the duration of one day and night. Every free Muslim must pay Zakat-ul-Fitr for himself, his wife, children, and servants. This is the opinion of Imam Malik, Al-Shafi`i, and Ahmad. Imam Abu Hanifah, however, said that it is only obligatory for one who possesses a nisab (a minimum amount of property) after fulfilling the costs of his house, servant, horse, and weapon.[8]

Al-Khattabi explained that Zakat-ul-Fitr was obligatory for all Muslims, not only those who possess the nisab stating that this is the view of the majority of scholars. He said, “In essence, the rationale behind it was stated to be the purification of one who fasts from any indecent act or speech. And since every Muslim needs this, it is therefore obligatory upon every fasting Muslim, whether rich or poor, who possesses one Sa` in excess of his main staple food for the duration of one day and night. This is because so long as the essential rationale is shared by all Muslims, then they also share the same obligation.”[9]

Al-Qaradawi also asserts the majority view when he says, “It is a virtuous wisdom of Islam that it makes this Zakah obligatory not only on the rich, but also upon nearly every Muslim, for you can hardly find a person who does not possess one Sa` of food above his main staple food for the duration of one day and night. The wisdom behind this obligation, therefore, is to prepare the poor to practice benevolence and feel the dignity and honour of giving in charity. Allah described the believers with these words, “Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity…”[10] Thus if we contemplate on this wisdom, we will not find it strange that the needy pay this Zakah, because it does not cause them to suffer any loss. He will pay only his Zakah and then receive the Zakah of various people.” [11]

Moreover, we have to bear in mind that Zakat-ul-Fitr is obligatory for everyone who lives until the sun sets on the last day of Ramadan. This is the point of view of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Malikis. Accordingly, whoever dies before the sun sets on the last day of Ramadan is exempted. Likewise, a person who has a baby on the last day of Ramadan should pay Zakat-ul-Fitr for the baby. The majority of jurists argue that we should not pay Zakat-ul-Fitr for an embryo. But Imam Ahmad holds that Zakat-ul-Fitr is also obligatory for an embryo, because it is permissible to assign property to an embryo by means of a will.

When Zakat-ul-Fitr is due

The jurists agree that Zakat-ul-Fitrr is due at the end of Ramadan. They differ, however, about the exact time. Al-Thawri, Ishaq, Malik (in one of two reports), and Al-Shafi`i (in one of his two opinions), are of the opinion that it is due at the sunset of the night of breaking the fast, for this is when the fast of Ramadan ends. However, Al-Layth, the Hanafi school, Al-Shafi`i (in his other opinion), and the second report of Malik say that Zakat-ul-Fitr is due at the start of Fajr (dawn) on the day of `Eid because it is an act of worship connected with `Eid, so the time of its payment should not be before `Eid just as sacrifice on the `Eid of Adha.[12]

These two different views acquire relevance if a baby is born after sunset but before dawn on the day of `Eid; the question then is whether Zakat-ul-Fitr is obligatory for the baby or not. In accordance with the first view, it is not, since the birth took place after the prescribed time, while according to the second view, it is obligatory because the birth took place within the prescribed space of time.[13]

Time of payment

It is not permissible to delay giving Zakat-ul-Fitr after the day of `Eid (i.e. one may give it up to the time of the `Eid prayer). However, there are some jurists who think that it is permissible to delay giving it even after the `Eid prayer.[14] The founders of the four schools of Fiqh hold the first opinion, but Ibn Sirin and al-Nakha‘i say that its payment can be delayed. Ahmad says: “I hope that there is no harm [in delaying the payment].” Ibn Raslan says that there is a consensus that payment cannot be delayed merely for the reason that it is a type of Zakah. Thus, any delay is a sin and is analogous to delaying one’s prayers without an acceptable excuse.[15]

Anyway, the founders of the four accepted Islamic legal schools agree that Zakat-ul-Fitr is not nullified simply by failure to pay it on its due time. If it is not paid before `Eid prayer, one is not exempt from it. It becomes a debt payable even after death. The heirs must not distribute the deceased’s legacy before payment of the deceased’s unpaid Zakat-ul-Fitr.[16]

Most scholars believe that it is permissible to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr a day or two before `Eid. Ibn `Umar reported that the Messenger, upon whom be peace, ordered them to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr before the people went out to perform the `Eid prayer. Nafi‘ reported that `Umar used to pay it a day or two before the end of Ramadan. However, scholars hold different opinions when a longer time period is involved. According to Abu Hanifah, it is permissible to pay it even before Ramadan so long as you make the intention of Zakah.[17] Al-Shaf‘i holds that it is permissible to do so at the beginning of Ramadan. Malik and Ahmad (in his well-known view) maintain that it is permissible to pay it only one or two days in advance.[18]

Al-Qaradawi explains the reasons for these differences in opinion by saying that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, used to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr after Fajr prayer on the day of `Eid but before the `Eid prayer for the reason that the Muslim community was still small and limited in number. During the time of the Companions the payment was made one or two days before the `Eid. After the spread of Islam the jurists permitted its payment from the beginning and middle of Ramadan so as to ensure that the Zakat-ul-Fitr reached its beneficiaries on the day of `Eid, thereby avoiding the possibility that the process of distribution would delay reception of the payment after the day of `Eid.[19] After explaining the different views regarding the time of payment, Sheikh `Atiyyah Saqr stated that these differences of opinion among the jurists justify some leniency for Muslims in regard to the time of payment, and therefore a Muslim can pay at any of these times. He also took the view that paying it at different times gives the poor and needy the opportunity to benefit from Zakat-ul-Fitr and fulfil their needs for longer periods.[20]

In my opinion these differences are due to taking into consideration both the needs of the poor and the opportunity of attaining the wisdom behind the obligation of Zakat-ul-Fitr. Therefore, the most acceptable and practical approach is to apply whichever practice fulfils the purpose and wisdom behind Zakat-ul-Fitr, that is bringing happiness to the poor on the day of `Eid and giving their children a chance to enjoy this day as others do.

What type of food can be given and permissible substitutes

The jurists hold different views as to the types of food which must be given as Zakat-ul-Fitr. The Hanbali view is that the kinds of food which can be given are five: dates, raisins, wheat, barley, and dry cottage cheese. Imam Ahmad is reported to have said that any kind of staple grain or dates are also permissible, even if the above five types are available. The Malikis and Shafi`is are of the view that it is permissible to give any kind of food as long as it is the main staple in that particular region or the main food of the person. As for the Hanafis, they permit paying the value of Zakat-ul-Fitr in money.[21]

Ibn Al-Qayyim highlighted these different viewpoints and concluded that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, prescribed Zakat-ul-Fitr as one Sa` of dates, barley, raisins or dry cottage cheese. These were the main staple kinds of food in Madinah. As for people of other territories, what they should pay is one sa’ of their staple grain, such as corn, rice, etc. But if their main staple food is other than grain, such as milk, meat, fish, etc., then they should pay one Sa` of that particular food. This is the opinion of the majority of scholars and is the preferred point of view, since it achieves the purpose of fulfilling the needs of the poor on the day of `Eid with the staple food of their region.[22]

The calculation of Zakat-ul-Fitr

The amount of Zakat-ul-Fitr, as we referred earlier, is one Sa` of food. There is consensus on this amount among the scholars with regard to all types of food except wheat and raisins. As for these two types the Shafi`is, Malikis and Hanbalis agree that the prescribed amount is one Sa`, however the Hanafis say it is sufficient to pay half Sa` from wheat and they differed with regard to raisins.[23] After discussing the arguments of these two opinions al-Qaradawi reached the following conclusion: wheat was not a common food amongst them during the time of the Prophet so he did not prescribe one Sa` of it as he did with the other types of food. As for those of the Companions of the Prophet who prescribed half Sa` of wheat instead of one Sa` of barely or dates like Mu`awiyah and other Companions, he views that they did so by analogy, since the value of wheat was more than those of other types of food which were equal. But according to their opinion, he says, the value should be considered and taken as the criterion and this will cause instability and confusion for it changes from place to another and from time to time. He mentioned that in Pakistan the value of wheat is less than that of dates, then how should we pay of it half the amount (i.e. Sa`) that we should pay of dates? He also mentioned that nowadays raisins are more expensive than wheat and dates. The only solution for these problems, he says, is to regard Sa` as the criterion and basis.[24]

Al-Qaradawi explains why the Prophet appointed Sa` as the measure and did not prescribe it in money saying that in his opinion there are two reasons for this: First, money was still rare among the Arabs particularly the Bedouins. They did not have their own currency. So if the Prophet had prescribed it in money, he would have caused hardship to them. Second, the purchasing power of money changes from time to time. For instance, the purchasing power of a certain currency sometimes becomes low and other times high, so paying Zakat-ul-Fitr in money makes its value unstable. That is why the Prophet prescribed it with a stable measure, that is an amount of food which fulfils the needs of one family. For one Sa` provides a family with food for a whole day.[25]

The amount of Sa`

Sa` is a certain measure which equals 4 mudds (a mudd equals a handful of an average man). The contemporary equivalent weights of Sa` differs according to the stuff which is weighted. For example a Sa` of wheat equals 2176 grams, a Sa` of rice is 2520 grams, a Sa` of beans equals 2250 grams etc.[26] Therefore some scholars are of the view that the criterion should be the measure not the weight for there are kinds of food which are heavier than others.[27] But I think this is the case if the equivalent weight of a certain kind of food is not known. If there is no available measure or weight with the person, then he should pay 4 mudds. Nowadays, it is not that problem because ministries of religious affairs in Muslim countries and mosques and Islamic centres in Western countries announce the value of Zakat-ul-Fitr every year. Anyhow, this is the obligatory amount which every Muslim should pay. It is better and recommended that one pays an extra amount, particularly for those who are wealthy, for they will be rewarded for it.

Its payment in money

As it is mentioned earlier, the Hanafis permitted the payment of Zakat-ul-Fitr in money. This is the view of Al-Thawri, Al-Hasan al-Basri, and `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz. However, the other three schools did not permit this. Their argument is that the Prophet did not do so and hence its payment in money contradicts the Sunnah of the Prophet. But some contemporary scholars support the Hanafi view since this is easier nowadays for the payer particularly in cities where people use only money for dealings. Among them are Sheikh Shaltut, al-Ghazali, and al-Qaradawi[28] who mentioned earlier the two reasons for which the Prophet did not prescribe it in money. He also stated that the purpose of Zakat-ul-Fitr is to fulfil the needs of the poor and this is achieved also by payment in money and that in most cases and most countries the payment in money is more useful to the poor.[29] He also mentioned that when the Prophet prescribed it from food, it was easy for the payer and useful for the recipient during that time. But nowadays to pay it in food is not useful for the poor because he cannot make use, for instance, of wheat or dates unless he sells them with any price, generally low, to buy his needs with the money.[30]

Al-Qaradawi excluded the times of famines where the payment of food is more useful for the recipients and said that the criterion is the benefit of the poor so if food proves to be more useful as in times of famines and catastrophes, then its payment in kind is better. But if money is more useful, then its payment in money is better.[31]

Nowadays, if we consider the condition in the Muslim world in general and that of Muslims in the West in particular we will discover that the second view is more convenient with the spirit of Islamic legislation and the present condition of Muslims. As we will see later when Muslims living in the West decide to transfer their Zakah funds or some of them to needy Muslims in Muslim countries, then the payment in money is more convenient.


[1]Sabiq, op.cit, vol. III, p. 87.

[2]Abû Dâwûd, Sunan Abî Dâwûd, ed. Muhammad ‘Abd al-‘Azîz al-Khâlidî, vol. 1, Dâr al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1416/1996, p. 473.

[3]Qaradâwî, Yûsuf al-, Fiqh al-Zakâh, 4th ed., vol. II, Mu’assasat al-Risâlah, Beirut, 1980, pp. 922.

[4]Shahatah, Hussain H., How to Calculate Zakat ul-Fitr, trans. Abdel-Hamid Eliwa, 1st ed., Al-Falah Foundation, Cairo-Egypt (1999), pp. 3-4.

[5]Bayhaqî, Ahmad b. al-Husayn b. ‘Alî, Sunan al-Bayhaqî al-Kubrâ, ed. Muhammad ‘Abd al-Qâdir ‘Atâ, Maktabat Dâr al-Bâz, Makkah al-Mukarramah, 1414/1994, vol. 3, p. 382.

[6]Shahatah, op.cit, p. 6.

[7]Darqutnî, ‘Alî b. ‘Amr Abû al-Hasan al-, Sunan al-Darqutnî, ed. Al-Sayyid ‘Abdullah Hâshim Yamânî al-Madanî, vol. 2, Dâr al-Ma‘rifah, Beirut, 1386/1966, p.152.

[8]Dahmân, Muhammad Ahmad, Kitâb al-Siyâm, 1st ed., Matba‘at al-Taraqqî, Damascus, 1341/1923, p. 34.

[9]Ibidem, pp. 19-20.

[10]The Qur’ân, ’Âl ‘Imrân [3: 134]

[11]Qaradâwî, Yûsuf, Al-‘Ibâdah fî al-slâm, 5th ed., Maktabat Wahbah, Cairo, 1985,p. 282.

[12] Ibn Qudâmah al-Maqdisî, ‘Abdullâh b. Ahmad, Al-Muqni‘, vol. 1, Al-Maktabah al-Salafiyyah, n.d., p. 336.

[13] Sabiq, op.cit, vol. III, p. 89.

[14] Shahatah, How to Calculate Zakat ul-Fitr, p.17.

[15] Sabiq, op.cit, vol. III, p. 89.

[16] Shahâtah, Hussayn H., Fiqh wa Hisâb Zakât al-Fitr, Cairo 1998, pp. 21-22.

[17]Ibidem, pp. 20-21.

[18]Sabiq, op.cit, vol. III, p. 89.

[19]http://qaradawi.net/arabic/meetings/shreai-&-hayaa/prog-46.htm

[20]Qinâwî, ‘Abd al-Râziq Muhammad, Fatâwâ al-Sawm, 1st ed., Dâr Al-Amîn , Cairo, 1998, p. 59.

[21]Shahâtah, Fiqh wa Hisâb Zakât al-Fitr, pp. 11-12.

[22]Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, A‘lâm Al-Muwaqqi‘în ‘an Rabb Al-‘Âlamîn, vol. III, Dar al-Kutub al-Hadîthah, Cairo, 1969, pp. 15-16.

[23]Qaradâwî, Fiqh al-Zakâh, pp. 932-33.

[24]Ibidem, pp. 937-40.

[25]Qaradâwî, Fatâwâ Mu‘âsirah, vol. I, 8th ed., Dâr al-Qalam, Kuwait, 1420/2000, p. 336.

[26]Shahâtah, Fiqh wa Hisâb Zakât al-Fitr, pp. 16-17.

[27]Qaradâwî, Fiqh al-Zakâh, p. 942.

[28]Shahâtah, Fiqh wa Hisâb Zakât al-Fitr, p. 15.

[29]Qaradâwî, Fiqh al-Zakâh, pp. 948-49.

[30]http://qaradawi.net/arabic/meetings/shreai-&-hayaa/sh-2000-01-02.htm

[31]Qaradâwî, Fiqh al-Zakâh, pp. 950-51

TAPSIRI YAKE KWA KISWAHILI

Zaka-ul-Fitr

Kila muislamu anatakiwa kulipa Zaka-ul-Fitr katika hitimisho ya mwezi wa Ramadhani kama ishara ya shukrani kwa Mungu kwa ajili ya kuwa na kuwezeshwa yake kushika mrefu. Its purpose is to purify those who fast from any indecent act or speech and to help the poor and needy.[1] This view is based upon the hadith which reads, “The Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, enjoined Zakat-ul-Fitr on those who fast to shield them from any indecent act or speech, and for the purpose of providing food for the needy. lengo lake ni kutakasa wale ambao kwa haraka kutokana na uchafu kitendo chochote au hotuba na kuwasaidia maskini na wahitaji [. 1] Mtazamo huu ni msingi juu ya Hadith ambayo inasema, “Mtume wa Mwenyezi Mungu, juu ya nani na amani, akawaonya Zaka-ul -Fitr kwa wale ambao kwa haraka na ngao yao kutoka uchafu kitendo au kauli, na kwa madhumuni ya kutoa chakula kwa masikini. It is accepted as Zakah for the one who pays it before the `Eid prayer, and it is sadaqah for the one who pays it after the prayer.”[2] Al-Qaradawi comments on this hadith by saying that there are two purposes: one is related to the individual; for completion of his fast and compensation for any shortcomings in his acts or speech. Ni kukubalika kama Zakah kwa ajili ya mtu pays mbele “Eid maombi, na ni sadaqah na yule pays baada ya maombi”. [2] Al-Qaradawi maoni juu ya Hadithi hii kwa kusema kwamba kuna sababu mbili: mmoja ni kuhusiana na ya mtu binafsi, kwa ajili ya kukamilisha kasi yake na fidia kwa mapungufu yoyote katika matendo yake au hotuba. The other is related to society; for the spreading of love and happiness among its members, particularly the poor and needy, during the day of `Eid.[3] It also purifies one’s soul from such shortcomings as the adoration of property, and from miserliness. nyingine ni kuhusiana na jamii, kwa ajili ya kueneza upendo na furaha miongoni mwa wanachama wake, hasa ya maskini na maskini, katika siku ya “Eid. [] 3 Pia jitakasa ya nafsi moja kutoka mapungufu kama vile ya kuabudu ya mali, na kutoka miserliness. Furthermore, it purifies one’s property from the stain of unlawful earnings. Aidha, jitakasa wa mali mmoja kutoka stain ya mapato kinyume cha sheria. It is also a cure for ailments.[4] The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “It would be better that you treat your patients with charity.”[5] Pia ni tiba ya magonjwa ya 4. [] Mtume, amani na baraka kuwa juu yake, akasema, “Itakuwa bora zaidi kwamba kutibu wagonjwa wako kwa upendo.” [5]

In addition, it provides for the needs of the poor and the indigent and relieves them from having to ask others for charity on the day of `Eid.[6] The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Fulfil their need on this day (ie, the day of `Eid)”[7] Aidha, inatoa kwa ajili ya mahitaji ya maskini na masikini na relieves yao kutoka kuwa na kuomba wengine kwa upendo siku ya “Eid]. 6 [Mtume, amani na baraka kuwa juu yake, akasema,” Na timizeni mahitaji yao katika siku hii (yaani, siku ya “Eid)” [7]

Who must pay Zakat-ul-Fitr Ambaye anapaswa kulipa Zaka-ul-Fitr

Zakat-ul-Fitr is incumbent on every free Muslim who possesses one Sa` of dates or barley which is not needed as basic food for himself or his family for the duration of one day and night. Zaka-ul-Fitr ni etablerade tarehe free Waislamu kila mmoja ambaye ana Sa “ya tarehe au shayiri ambayo si ya msingi kama chakula zinahitajika kwa ajili yake mwenyewe au familia yake kwa muda wa siku moja na usiku. Every free Muslim must pay Zakat-ul-Fitr for himself, his wife, children, and servants. Kila Muslim free lazima kulipa Zaka-ul-Fitr kwa ajili yake mwenyewe, mke wake, watoto, na watumishi. This is the opinion of Imam Malik, Al-Shafi`i, and Ahmad. Imam Abu Hanifah, however, said that it is only obligatory for one who possesses a nisab (a minimum amount of property) after fulfilling the costs of his house, servant, horse, and weapon.[8] Hii ni maoni ya Imam Malik, Al-Shafi `i, na Imam Ahmad. Abu Hanifah, hata hivyo, alisema kuwa ni lazima kwa mmoja tu ambaye ana nisab (kiasi cha chini ya mali) baada ya kutimiza gharama ya nyumba yake, mtumishi, farasi, na silaha [. 8]

Al-Khattabi explained that Zakat-ul-Fitr was obligatory for all Muslims, not only those who possess the nisab stating that this is the view of the majority of scholars. Al-Khattabi alieleza kuwa Zaka-ul-Fitr ilikuwa lazima kwa Waislamu wote, siyo tu wenye ilimu nisab na kusema kuwa huu ni mtazamo wa wengi wa wasomi. He said, “In essence, the rationale behind it was stated to be the purification of one who fasts from any indecent act or speech. Yeye akasema, “Kwa asili, rationale ya nyuma yake alikuwa alisema kuwa utakaso wa aliye mifungo kutoka uchafu kitendo au maneno. And since every Muslim needs this, it is therefore obligatory upon every fasting Muslim, whether rich or poor, who possesses one Sa` in excess of his main staple food for the duration of one day and night. Na kwa kuwa kila Muislamu mahitaji hayo, basi Zaka juu ya kufunga kila Waislamu, kama tajiri au maskini, ambaye ana Sa moja “katika unyang’anyi wa kuu la chakula yake kwa muda wa siku moja na usiku. This is because so long as the essential rationale is shared by all Muslims, then they also share the same obligation.”[9] Hii ni kwa sababu muda mrefu kama rationale muhimu ni pamoja na Waislamu wote, basi nao pia sehemu ya jukumu moja “. [9]

Al-Qaradawi also asserts the majority view when he says, “It is a virtuous wisdom of Islam that it makes this Zakah obligatory not only on the rich, but also upon nearly every Muslim, for you can hardly find a person who does not possess one Sa` of food above his main staple food for the duration of one day and night. Al-Qaradawi asserts pia maoni ya wengi wakati anasema, “Ni hekima wema wa Uislamu kwamba inafanya Zaka Zakah hii si tu kwa matajiri, lakini pia juu ya karibu kila Kiislamu, kwa maana huwezi vigumu kupata mtu ambaye hawezi kuishi Sa mmoja “wa chakula juu kuu la chakula yake kwa muda wa siku moja na usiku. The wisdom behind this obligation, therefore, is to prepare the poor to practice benevolence and feel the dignity and honour of giving in charity. Allah described the believers with these words, “Those who spend (freely), whether in prosperity, or in adversity…”[10] Thus if we contemplate on this wisdom, we will not find it strange that the needy pay this Zakah, because it does not cause them to suffer any loss. Hekima nyuma ya wajibu huu, kwa hiyo, ni maandalizi ya maskini na utendaji wema na kuhisi hadhi na heshima ya kutoa kwa upendo. Mwenyezi Mungu alieleza Waumini kwa maneno haya, “Na wale ambao wanatoa (uhuru), ikiwa kwa mafanikio, au katika shida … “[10] Hivyo, kama sisi kutafakari juu ya hekima hii, sisi si ajabu kuona kuwa ni kwamba masikini za kulipia Zakah hii, kwa sababu haina sababu wao kuteseka hasara yoyote. He will pay only his Zakah and then receive the Zakah of various people.” [11] Yeye kulipa tu Zakah yake na kisha kupokea Zakah ya watu mbalimbali “. [11]

Moreover, we have to bear in mind that Zakat-ul-Fitr is obligatory for everyone who lives until the sun sets on the last day of Ramadan. This is the point of view of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Malikis. Accordingly, whoever dies before the sun sets on the last day of Ramadan is exempted. Aidha, tunapaswa kuzingatia katika kuwa Zaka-ul-Fitr ni lazima kwa kila mtu ambaye anaishi mpaka jua seti ya siku ya mwisho ya Ramadhani ya. Hii ni hatua ya kuona Shafi “ni, Hanbalis, na Malikis. Kwa, mtu akifa kabla ya jua seti ya siku ya mwisho wa Ramadhan ni msamaha. Likewise, a person who has a baby on the last day of Ramadan should pay Zakat-ul-Fitr for the baby. Hali kadhalika, mtu aliye na mtoto katika siku ya mwisho wa Ramadhan lazima kulipa Zaka-ul-Fitr kwa mtoto. The majority of jurists argue that we should not pay Zakat-ul-Fitr for an embryo. Wengi wa jurists wanasema kwamba haipaswi kulipa Zaka-ul-Fitr kwa MTOTO ya. But Imam Ahmad holds that Zakat-ul-Fitr is also obligatory for an embryo, because it is permissible to assign property to an embryo by means of a will. Lakini Imam Ahmad anashikilia kwamba Zaka-ul-Fitr pia ni lazima kwa MTOTO ni, kwa sababu ni mali hawawajui inaruhusiwa kwa MTOTO ni kwa njia ya mapenzi.

When Zakat-ul-Fitr is due Wakati Zaka-ul-Fitr ni kutokana

The jurists agree that Zakat-ul-Fitrr is due at the end of Ramadan. They differ, however, about the exact time. The jurists kukubaliana kwamba Zaka-ul-Fitrr ni kutokana na saa ya mwisho wa Ramadhan tofauti. Hao, hata hivyo, kuhusu wakati halisi. Al-Thawri, Ishaq, Malik (in one of two reports), and Al-Shafi`i (in one of his two opinions), are of the opinion that it is due at the sunset of the night of breaking the fast, for this is when the fast of Ramadan ends. Al-Thawri, Is-haqa, Malik (katika moja ya taarifa mbili), na Al-Shafi `i (katika moja ya mbili maoni yake), ni ya maoni kuwa ni kutokana na saa ya machweo ya usiku wa kuvunja kwa haraka, kwa huu ni wakati wa kufunga wa Ramadhan mwisho. However, Al-Layth, the Hanafi school, Al-Shafi`i (in his other opinion), and the second report of Malik say that Zakat-ul-Fitr is due at the start of Fajr (dawn) on the day of `Eid because it is an act of worship connected with `Eid, so the time of its payment should not be before `Eid just as sacrifice on the `Eid of Adha.[12] Hata hivyo, Al-Layth, shule Hanafi, Al-Shafi `i (kwa wengine maoni yake), na ripoti ya pili ya Malik wanasema Zaka-ul-Fitr ni kutokana na saa ya kuanza ya Alfajiri (asubuhi) siku ya” Eid kwa sababu ni kitendo cha ibada inayoendana na “Eid, hivyo wakati wa malipo yake haipaswi kuwa kabla ya” Eid kama sadaka juu ya Eid “ya Adha. [12]

These two different views acquire relevance if a baby is born after sunset but before dawn on the day of `Eid; the question then is whether Zakat-ul-Fitr is obligatory for the baby or not. Hizi mbili kupata maoni tofauti umuhimu kama mtoto aliyezaliwa baada ya jua kutua, lakini kabla ya alfajiri siku ya “Eid, swali basi ni kama Zaka-ul-Fitr ni lazima kwa mtoto au la. In accordance with the first view, it is not, since the birth took place after the prescribed time, while according to the second view, it is obligatory because the birth took place within the prescribed space of time.[13] Kulingana na mtazamo wa kwanza, siyo, tangu kuzaliwa ulifanyika baada ya eda wakati, wakati kwa mujibu wa maoni ya pili, ni wajibu kwa sababu ya kuzaliwa ya ulifanyika ndani ya eda nafasi ya wakati.] [13

Time of payment Time ya malipo

It is not permissible to delay giving Zakat-ul-Fitr after the day of `Eid (ie one may give it up to the time of the `Eid prayer). However, there are some jurists who think that it is permissible to delay giving it even after the `Eid prayer.[14] The founders of the four schools of Fiqh hold the first opinion, but Ibn Sirin and al-Nakha’i say that its payment can be delayed. Si inajuzu kuchelewesha kutoa Zaka-ul-Fitr baada ya siku ya “Eid (yaani mtu anaweza kuwapa hadi wakati wa” Sala ya Eid) kutoa. Hata hivyo, kuna baadhi ya jurists ambao wanadhani kwamba ni inajuzu kuchelewesha hata baada ya “sala Eid [. 14] waanzilishi wa nne wa shule ya Fiqh kushikilia maoni ya kwanza, lakini Ibn Sirin na al-Nakha’i kusema kuwa malipo yake inaweza kuwa kuchelewa. Ahmad says: “I hope that there is no harm [in delaying the payment].” Ibn Raslan says that there is a consensus that payment cannot be delayed merely for the reason that it is a type of Zakah. Ahmad anasema: “Nina matumaini kwamba hakuna [madhara katika kuchelewesha] malipo”. Ibn Raslan anasema kuwa kuna makubaliano kwamba malipo unaweza kuwa kuchelewa tu kwa sababu ya kuwa ni aina ya Zakah. Thus, any delay is a sin and is analogous to delaying one’s prayers without an acceptable excuse.[15] Kwa hiyo, kuchelewa yoyote ni dhambi na ni mmoja wa motsvarande kuchelewesha sala bila kukubaliwa udhuru ni]. [15

Anyway, the founders of the four accepted Islamic legal schools agree that Zakat-ul-Fitr is not nullified simply by failure to pay it on its due time. Anyway, wa waanzilishi wa shule nne za Kiislamu kukubalika kisheria kukubali kwamba Zaka-ul-Fitr nullified si tu kwa kushindwa kulipa juu kutokana na wakati wake. If it is not paid before `Eid prayer, one is not exempt from it. Kama si kulipwa kabla ya “Eid sala, mmoja si msamaha kutoka humo. It becomes a debt payable even after death. Inakuwa deni kulipwa hata baada ya kifo. The heirs must not distribute the deceased’s legacy before payment of the deceased’s unpaid Zakat-ul-Fitr.[16] Warithi lazima si kugawa urithi wa marehemu kabla ya malipo ya marehemu bila kulipwa na Zaka-ul-Fitr. [16]

Most scholars believe that it is permissible to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr a day or two before `Eid. Wasomi wengi kuamini kwamba ni inajuzu kulipa Zaka-ul-Fitr siku moja au mbili kabla ya “Eid. Ibn `Umar reported that the Messenger, upon whom be peace, ordered them to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr before the people went out to perform the `Eid prayer. Ibn `Umar taarifa kwamba Mtume, juu ya nani na amani, kuamuru watoe Zaka-ul-Fitr kabla ya watu alikwenda kufanya maombi ya” Eid. Nafi’ reported that `Umar used to pay it a day or two before the end of Ramadan. Nafi ‘taarifa kwamba “Umar kutumika kulipa ni siku moja au mbili kabla ya mwisho wa Ramadhan. However, scholars hold different opinions when a longer time period is involved. Hata hivyo, wasomi kushikilia maoni tofauti, wakati wa kipindi cha muda mrefu zaidi ni kushiriki. According to Abu Hanifah, it is permissible to pay it even before Ramadan so long as you make the intention of Zakah.[17] Al-Shaf’i holds that it is permissible to do so at the beginning of Ramadan. Kulingana na Abu Hanifah, ni inajuzu kulipa hata kabla ya Ramadhan muda mrefu kama wewe kufanya nia ya Zakah 17. [] Al-Shaf’i anashikilia kwamba inajuzu kufanya hivyo wakati wa mwanzo wa Ramadhan. Malik and Ahmad (in his well-known view) maintain that it is permissible to pay it only one or two days in advance.[18] Malik na Ahmad (katika maalumu maoni yake) kuwa ni kudumisha inajuzu kulipa tu moja au siku mbili kabla.] [18

Al-Qaradawi explains the reasons for these differences in opinion by saying that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, used to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr after Fajr prayer on the day of `Eid but before the `Eid prayer for the reason that the Muslim community was still small and limited in number. Al-Qaradawi anaelezea sababu hizi kwa maoni tofauti kwa kusema kuwa Mtume, amani na baraka kuwa juu yake, hutumika kulipa Zaka-ul-Fitr baada ya Alfajiri sala siku ya “Eid lakini kabla ya” sala Eid kwa sababu ya kuwa jamii ya Waislamu bado mdogo na mdogo kwa idadi. During the time of the Companions the payment was made one or two days before the `Eid. Wakati wa maswahaba wa malipo hayo yalifanywa siku moja au mbili kabla ya Eid “. After the spread of Islam the jurists permitted its payment from the beginning and middle of Ramadan so as to ensure that the Zakat-ul-Fitr reached its beneficiaries on the day of `Eid, thereby avoiding the possibility that the process of distribution would delay reception of the payment after the day of `Eid.[19] After explaining the different views regarding the time of payment, Sheikh `Atiyyah Saqr stated that these differences of opinion among the jurists justify some leniency for Muslims in regard to the time of payment, and therefore a Muslim can pay at any of these times. Baada ya kuenea kwa Uislamu wa jurists ruhusa malipo yake tangu mwanzo na katikati ya Ramadhan ili kuhakikisha kwamba Zaka-ul-Fitr kufikiwa walengwa wake siku ya “Eid, na hivyo kuzuia uwezekano wa kwamba mchakato wa usambazaji ingekuwa kuchelewesha mapokezi ya malipo baada ya siku ya “Eid [. 19] Baada ya kueleza maoni tofauti kuhusu muda wa malipo, Sheikh Saqr” Atiyyah alisema kuwa hayo tofauti za maoni kati ya jurists ya kuhalalisha baadhi ya msamaha kwa ajili ya Waislamu kuhusu muda wa malipo, na hiyo ni Waislamu wanaweza kulipa wakati wowote wa siku hizi. He also took the view that paying it at different times gives the poor and needy the opportunity to benefit from Zakat-ul-Fitr and fulfil their needs for longer periods.[20] Pia walichukua mtazamo kwamba kulipa hiyo kwa nyakati tofauti huwapa maskini na wahitaji nafasi ya kunufaika kutoka Zaka-ul-Fitr na kutimiza mahitaji yao kwa muda mrefu. [20]

In my opinion these differences are due to taking into consideration both the needs of the poor and the opportunity of attaining the wisdom behind the obligation of Zakat-ul-Fitr. Kwa maoni yangu tofauti hizi ni kutokana na kuzingatia mahitaji yote ya maskini na nafasi ya malengo ya hekima nyuma ya wajibu wa Zaka-ul-Fitr. Therefore, the most acceptable and practical approach is to apply whichever practice fulfils the purpose and wisdom behind Zakat-ul-Fitr, that is bringing happiness to the poor on the day of `Eid and giving their children a chance to enjoy this day as others do. Kwa hiyo, ya kupendeza na vitendo mbinu zaidi ni kutumia mazoezi yoyote inatimiza madhumuni na hekima nyuma Zaka-ul-Fitr, kwamba ni kuleta furaha kwa maskini siku ya “Eid na kuwapa watoto wao nafasi ya kufurahia siku hii kama wengine kufanya.

What type of food can be given and permissible substitutes Ni aina gani ya chakula linaloweza kutolewa na inajuzu substitutes

The jurists hold different views as to the types of food which must be given as Zakat-ul-Fitr. The jurists kushikilia maoni tofauti kwa ajili ya aina ya chakula ambayo lazima kutolewa kama Zaka-ul-Fitr. The Hanbali view is that the kinds of food which can be given are five: dates, raisins, wheat, barley, and dry cottage cheese. Mtazamo Hanbali ni kwamba aina ya chakula ambayo inaweza kutolewa ni watano, tarehe, zabibu, ngano, shayiri, na kavu Cottage cheese. Imam Ahmad is reported to have said that any kind of staple grain or dates are also permissible, even if the above five types are available. Imam Ahmad ni taarifa kwa kuwa alisema kwamba kila aina ya nafaka kikuu au tarehe inaruhusiwa pia, hata kama kwa zaidi ya aina tano za kutosha. The Malikis and Shafi`is are of the view that it is permissible to give any kind of food as long as it is the main staple in that particular region or the main food of the person. The Malikis na Shafi “ni kuwa ni ya kuangalia kwamba ni inajuzu kutoa kila aina ya chakula kwa muda mrefu kama ni zao kuu la chakula katika kanda maalum hiyo au ya chakula kuu ya mtu. As for the Hanafis, they permit paying the value of Zakat-ul-Fitr in money.[21] Kama kwa Hanafis, wao kibali kulipa thamani ya Zaka-ul-Fitr katika fedha. [21]

Ibn Al-Qayyim highlighted these different viewpoints and concluded that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, prescribed Zakat-ul-Fitr as one Sa` of dates, barley, raisins or dry cottage cheese. These were the main staple kinds of food in Madinah. Ibn Al-Qayyim yalionyesha tofauti viewpoints haya na alihitimisha kuwa Mtume, amani na baraka kuwa juu yake, kinachotakiwa Zaka-ul-Fitr kama Sa `ya tarehe, shayiri, zabibu kavu au Cottage cheese. Hawa walikuwa zao kuu aina ya chakula katika Madina. As for people of other territories, what they should pay is one sa’ of their staple grain, such as corn, rice, etc. But if their main staple food is other than grain, such as milk, meat, fish, etc., then they should pay one Sa` of that particular food. Kama kwa watu wa maeneo mengine, nini wanapaswa kulipa ni Sa ‘moja ya chakula nafaka zao, kama vile ngano, mchele, nk Lakini kama chakula chao kikuu kuu ni zaidi ya nafaka, kama vile maziwa, nyama, samaki, nk basi wanapaswa kulipa moja Sa “kushiriki chakula. This is the opinion of the majority of scholars and is the preferred point of view, since it achieves the purpose of fulfilling the needs of the poor on the day of `Eid with the staple food of their region.[22] Hii ni dhana ya walio wengi wasomi na ni suala preferred ya mtazamo, kwani achieves madhumuni ya kutimiza mahitaji ya watu maskini siku ya “Eid kwa chakula kikuu wa nchi yao.] [22

The calculation of Zakat-ul-Fitr Mahesabu ya Zaka-ul-Fitr

The amount of Zakat-ul-Fitr, as we referred earlier, is one Sa` of food. Kiwango cha Zaka-ul-Fitr, kama sisi inajulikana mapema, ni moja Sa “wa chakula. There is consensus on this amount among the scholars with regard to all types of food except wheat and raisins. Kuna makubaliano juu kiasi hiki kati ya wasomi kuhusu aina zote za chakula ila ngano na zabibu. As for these two types the Shafi`is, Malikis and Hanbalis agree that the prescribed amount is one Sa`, however the Hanafis say it is sufficient to pay half Sa` from wheat and they differed with regard to raisins.[23] After discussing the arguments of these two opinions al-Qaradawi reached the following conclusion: wheat was not a common food amongst them during the time of the Prophet so he did not prescribe one Sa` of it as he did with the other types of food. Haya aina mbili ya Shafi “ni, Malikis na Hanbalis kukubaliana kwamba kiwango kinachotakiwa ni moja Sa”, hata hivyo Hanafis wanasema ni kutosha kulipa nusu Sa “kutoka ngano na walikhitalifiana kuhusu zabibu. 23] [Baada ya kujadili ya hoja mbili maoni hayo al-Qaradawi kufikiwa kwa hitimisho zifuatazo: ngano hakuwa chakula kawaida miongoni mwao wakati wa Mtume hivyo hakuwa na kuagiza moja Sa “yake kama alivyofanya pamoja na aina ya chakula. As for those of the Companions of the Prophet who prescribed half Sa` of wheat instead of one Sa` of barely or dates like Mu`awiyah and other Companions, he views that they did so by analogy, since the value of wheat was more than those of other types of food which were equal. Na wale wa maswahaba wa Mtume ambao nusu Sa maagizo “ya ngano badala ya mtu Sa” ya vigumu au tende kama “awiyah na maswahaba wengine Mu, yeye maoni kwamba alifanya hivyo kwa mlinganisho, tangu thamani ya ngano ilikuwa zaidi kuliko watu wa aina nyingine ya chakula ambayo walikuwa sawa. But according to their opinion, he says, the value should be considered and taken as the criterion and this will cause instability and confusion for it changes from place to another and from time to time. Lakini kulingana na maoni yao, anasema, thamani yanahitajika na kuchukuliwa kama Furqani na hii kusababisha machafuko na fujo kwa sababu mabadiliko kutoka sehemu hadi nyingine na kutoka mara kwa mara. He mentioned that in Pakistan the value of wheat is less than that of dates, then how should we pay of it half the amount (ie Sa`) that we should pay of dates? Yeye alieleza kuwa katika Pakistan thamani ya ngano ni chini kuliko ile ya tarehe, basi vipi tunapaswa kulipa kiasi hicho na nusu (yaani Sa “) ili tuwe mishahara ya tarehe? He also mentioned that nowadays raisins are more expensive than wheat and dates. Pia alieleza kuwa siku hizi zabibu ni ghali zaidi kuliko ngano na tende. The only solution for these problems, he says, is to regard Sa` as the criterion and basis.[24] Suluhisho la matatizo haya tu, anasema, ni kuhusu Sa “kama Furqani na msingi. [24]

Al-Qaradawi explains why the Prophet appointed Sa` as the measure and did not prescribe it in money saying that in his opinion there are two reasons for this: First, money was still rare among the Arabs particularly the Bedouins. Al-Qaradawi anaelezea kwa nini Mtume maalumu Sa “kama hatua ya na hawakuwa kuagiza kwa fedha akisema kuwa kwa maoni yake kuna sababu mbili kwa hii: Kwanza, fedha bado nadra kati ya Waarabu hasa Watakuambia mabedui. They did not have their own currency. Hawakuwa na fedha zao wenyewe. So if the Prophet had prescribed it in money, he would have caused hardship to them. Hivyo kama Mtume alikuwa na maagizo hayo katika fedha, alitaka unasababishwa ugumu wao. Second, the purchasing power of money changes from time to time. Pili, uwezo wa kununua mabadiliko ya fedha mara kwa mara. For instance, the purchasing power of a certain currency sometimes becomes low and other times high, so paying Zakat-ul-Fitr in money makes its value unstable. Kwa mfano, uwezo wa kununua wa baadhi ya sarafu na wakati mwingine anakuwa chini na mara nyingine ya juu, ili kulipa Zaka-ul-Fitr katika fedha inafanya thamani yake msimamo. That is why the Prophet prescribed it with a stable measure, that is an amount of food which fulfils the needs of one family. Hiyo ni kwa nini Mtume kuagizwa kwa hatua imara, kwamba ni kiasi cha chakula ambayo inatimiza mahitaji ya familia moja. For one Sa` provides a family with food for a whole day.[25] Sa mmoja “hutoa familia na chakula kwa siku nzima.] [25

The amount of Sa` Kiasi cha Sa “

Sa` is a certain measure which equals 4 mudds (a mudd equals a handful of an average man). Sa “ni kipimo fulani ambayo sawa mudds 4 (a mudd sawa na wachache wa wastani wa mtu). The contemporary equivalent weights of Sa` differs according to the stuff which is weighted. Ya kisasa sawa na uzito wa Sa “hutofautiana kulingana na mambo ambayo ni mizigo. For example a Sa` of wheat equals 2176 grams, a Sa` of rice is 2520 grams, a Sa` of beans equals 2250 grams etc.[26] Therefore some scholars are of the view that the criterion should be the measure not the weight for there are kinds of food which are heavier than others.[27] But I think this is the case if the equivalent weight of a certain kind of food is not known. Kwa mfano Sa “ya ngano sawa na gramu 2176, a Sa” ya mchele ni gramu 2520, na Sa `ya maharagwe nk sawa na gramu 2250 [] 26 Kwa hiyo baadhi ya wasomi ni ya kuona kwamba Furqani lazima kipimo hata uzito kwa maana kuna aina ya chakula ambayo ni nzito kuliko wengine anajulikana. [27] Lakini nadhani hii ni kesi ya sawa kama uzito wa aina fulani ya chakula si. If there is no available measure or weight with the person, then he should pay 4 mudds. Kama hakuna kipimo inapatikana au uzito na mtu, basi anapaswa kulipa mudds 4. Nowadays, it is not that problem because ministries of religious affairs in Muslim countries and mosques and Islamic centres in Western countries announce the value of Zakat-ul-Fitr every year. Siku hizi, ni kwamba tatizo kwa sababu Wizara ya mambo ya dini katika nchi za Kiislamu na misikiti na vituo vya Kiislamu katika nchi za Magharibi kutangaza thamani ya Zaka-ul-Fitr kila mwaka. Anyhow, this is the obligatory amount which every Muslim should pay. Anyhow, hii ni kiasi cha Zaka ambayo kila Muislamu anatakiwa kulipa. It is better and recommended that one pays an extra amount, particularly for those who are wealthy, for they will be rewarded for it. Ni bora na ilipendekeza kwamba moja wanalipa kiasi cha ziada, hasa kwa wale ambao ni matajiri, kwa kuwa watalipwa kwa hilo.

Its payment in money malipo yake katika fedha

As it is mentioned earlier, the Hanafis permitted the payment of Zakat-ul-Fitr in money. Kama ni zilizotajwa awali, Hanafis ruhusa ya malipo ya Zaka-ul-Fitr katika fedha. This is the view of Al-Thawri, Al-Hasan al-Basri, and `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz. Haya ni maoni ya Al-Thawri, Al-Hasan al-Basri, na “Umar ibn Abd al-” “Aziz. However, the other three schools did not permit this. Hata hivyo, shule tatu nyingine wala kibali huu. Their argument is that the Prophet did not do so and hence its payment in money contradicts the Sunnah of the Prophet. Hoja yao ni kuwa Mtume hakufanya hivyo na hivyo malipo yake katika fedha hupingana na Sunnah ya Mtume. But some contemporary scholars support the Hanafi view since this is easier nowadays for the payer particularly in cities where people use only money for dealings. Lakini baadhi ya wasomi wa kisasa kusaidia view Hanafi tangu hii siku hizi ni rahisi zaidi kwa wazuri na hasa katika miji ambapo watu kutumia fedha kwa ajili ya shughuli tu. Among them are Sheikh Shaltut, al-Ghazali, and al-Qaradawi[28] who mentioned earlier the two reasons for which the Prophet did not prescribe it in money. Miongoni mwao ni Sheikh Shaltut, al-Ghazali, na al-Qaradawi [28] ambaye alieleza mapema sababu mbili ambazo Mtume hakuwa kuagiza kwa fedha. He also stated that the purpose of Zakat-ul-Fitr is to fulfil the needs of the poor and this is achieved also by payment in money and that in most cases and most countries the payment in money is more useful to the poor.[29] He also mentioned that when the Prophet prescribed it from food, it was easy for the payer and useful for the recipient during that time. Pia alisema kuwa lengo la Zaka-ul-Fitr ni kutimiza mahitaji ya watu maskini na hii ni mafanikio pia kwa malipo ya fedha na kwamba katika kesi nyingi na nchi nyingi za malipo ya fedha ni muhimu zaidi kwa maskini 29. [ ] Pia alieleza kuwa wakati Mtume kinachotakiwa ni vyakula, ilikuwa rahisi kwa ajili ya wazuri na manufaa kwa mpokeaji wakati huo. But nowadays to pay it in food is not useful for the poor because he cannot make use, for instance, of wheat or dates unless he sells them with any price, generally low, to buy his needs with the money.[30] Lakini siku hizi kulipa kwa chakula si muhimu kwa ajili ya maskini kwa sababu yeye hawezi kufanya matumizi, kwa mfano, ya ngano au tende kama yeye anauza yao kwa bei yoyote, kwa ujumla chini, kununua mahitaji yake pamoja na fedha. [30]

Al-Qaradawi excluded the times of famines where the payment of food is more useful for the recipients and said that the criterion is the benefit of the poor so if food proves to be more useful as in times of famines and catastrophes, then its payment in kind is better. But if money is more useful, then its payment in money is better.[31] Al-Qaradawi kutengwa mara ya njaa ambapo malipo ya chakula ni muhimu zaidi kwa mpokeaji na kusema kwamba Furqani ni faida ya maskini hivyo kama chakula inathibitisha kuwa muhimu zaidi kama katika nyakati za njaa na majanga, basi malipo yake namna ni bora. Kama fedha ni muhimu zaidi, basi malipo yake katika fedha ni bora]. [31

Nowadays, if we consider the condition in the Muslim world in general and that of Muslims in the West in particular we will discover that the second view is more convenient with the spirit of Islamic legislation and the present condition of Muslims. Siku hizi, kama sisi kuzingatia hali katika ulimwengu wa Kiislamu kwa ujumla na ya Waislamu katika nchi za Magharibi hasa sisi kugundua kwamba maoni ya pili ni rahisi zaidi na roho ya sheria ya Kiislamu na hali ya sasa ya Waislamu. As we will see later when Muslims living in the West decide to transfer their Zakah funds or some of them to needy Muslims in Muslim countries, then the payment in money is more convenient. Kama tutaona baadaye wakati Waislamu wanaoishi katika nchi za Magharibi kuamua kuhamisha fedha zao Zakah au baadhi yao kwa Waislamu masikini katika nchi za Kiislamu, basi malipo ya fedha ni rahisi zaidi.

——————————————————————————

This Blog
Linked From Here
The Web
This Blog
Linked From Here
The Web

Thursday, August 12, 2010

MAZINGATIO YA RAMADHANI

Nasiha 40 Za Ramadhaan – Zitekeleze Ufaidike na Mwezi Mtukufu
Nasiha Za Minasaba Mbalimbali
Anasema Allaah سبحانه وتعالى

((يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ)) (( أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَاتٍ …))

((Enyi mlioamini! Mmefaradhishiwa Swawm, kama waliyofaradhishiwa waliokuwa kabla yenu ili mpate kumcha Allaah))(([Mfunge] siku maalumu za kuhisabika…)) [Al-Baqarah: 183-184]

Na Amesema Mtume صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم

(( من صام رمضان إيماناً و احتساباً غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه )) أخرجه البخاري ومسلم

Amesema Mtume صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ((Atakayefunga Ramadhaan kwa Iymaan na kutaraji malipo ataghufuriwa madhambi yake yaliyotangulia )) [Al Bukhaariy na Muslim].

Ndugu Muislamu, zifuate Nasiha 40 zifuatazo katika mwezi huu wa Ramadhaan uwe miongoni mwa watakaotoka ukiwa umeghufuriwa madhambi yako na umechuma thawabu tele.

1-Anza kwa kuzingatia mwezi huu mtukufu uwe wa kujihesabu, kutenda amali nyingi na kujirekebisha hali yako na uhusiano wako na Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala) uwe bora zaidi:

2- Kumbuka kwamba huu mwezi ni mgeni ambaye amekutembelea kisha ataondoka, hivyo mpokee mgeni wako na mkirimu kwa mazuri yote anayostahiki.

3-Tahadhari na kutokufunga bila ya sababu au udhuru wowote, kwani kufanya hivyo, Swawm yako haitolipika hata ukifunga mwaka mzima.

4-Swali kwa wakati wake, usiache Swalah ikakupita. Na jua kuwa ukiwa huswali Ramadhaan huna Swawm kwa mujibu wa fatwa za Maulamaa wengi.

5-Soma sana Qur-aan kadiri uwezavyo kwani ni mwezi ulioteremshwa Qur-aan. Kamilisha Msahafu mzima japo mara moja, ukishindwa basi hata nusu yake, robo yake.

6-Zidisha ‘Ibaadah za Sunnah, kama Sunnah zilizo Muakkadah (zilizosisitizwa) na zile Ghayri Muakkadah (zisizosisitizwa). Tazama ratiba katika kiungo kifuatacho:

Ratiba Ya Swalah Za Sunnah Zilizosisitizwa Na Zisizosisitizwa

7-Chukua fursa kuomba du’aa sana kila mara nyakati za kukubaliwa du’aa, khaswa ukiwa bado katika Swawm. Tumia wakati wa baina ya Adhaana na Iqaamah kuomba du’aa na haja zako kwani ni wakati wa kukubaliwa du’aa. Vile vile nyakati za thuluthi ya mwisho ya usiku.

8-Iboreshe Swalah yako kwa kuiswali ipasavyo na kuzidisha khushuu (unyenyekevu).

9-Usiache kuswali Taarawiyh pamoja na Jama‘ah, usiondoke hadi Imaam amalize upate thawabu za Qiyaamul-Layl.

10-Tahadhari na kufanya israaf ya mali, chakula na neema nyinginezo, kwani israaf ni mbaya na itakuondoshea neema ulizojaaliwa.

11- Tumia wakati wako vizuri na zingatia kwamba umri wako unazidi kupunguka.

12-Mwezi huu ni wa ‘Ibaadah na sio kula, kulala na kufanya ya upuuzi.

13-Zoesha ulimi wako uwe umerutubika kwa kumtaja Mola wako, usiwe miongoni mwa wasiomkumbuka Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala) ila kidogo tu.

14-Chukua fursa kufanya da‘awah. Amrisha mema na kataza maovu, kwani yule unayemuongoza atakapotekeleza mema, utazibeba nawe thawabu zake pia. Tuma ujumbe wa dini kwa wenzako. Chapisha idadi nyingi ya makala zenye mafunzo ya dini, chapisha du’aa ugawe Misikitini, vyuoni, majumbani. Unaweza kupata makala na du’aa mbali mbali katika http://www.alhidaaya.com. Pia kama una uwezo zaidi rekodi mawaidha yaliyomo ndani ya tovuti na wagawie wenzako upate ujira zaidi. Gawa bure na usiuze, kwani si ya kuuzwa.

15-Fanya kila aina ya wema uwezavyo, patanisha waliokhasimiana, msaidie mwenye haja na muokoe mwenye shida.

16-Wakumbuke wazazi, ndugu, jamaa na marafiki katika du’aa zako kwani kuwaombea wao bila ya wao kujua Malaika hukuombea na wewe vile vile.

17-Wasiliana na ndugu, jamaa kwani ni jambo lililosisitizwa sana na lenye kukuongeza umri, kheri na baraka nyingi. Walio mbali na wewe wasiliana nao kwa simu.

18-Unapohisi njaa, wafikirie masikini wasio na uwezo wa kula, na utambue kuwa uko katika neema ya Mola wako.

19-Muombe msamaha uliyemdhulumu kabla hajalipwa mema yako.

20-Mfuturishe aliyefunga upate thawabu zake juu ya thawabu zako.

21-Omba Maghfirah na msamaha kwa Mola wako, kwani tambua kwamba Yeye ni Mwingi wa Msamaha na Mwingi wa Rahma.

22-Ikiwa umetenda maasi kisha Akakusitiri Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’ala), tambua kuwa hiyo ni onyo utubie na weka azma kutokurudia tena.

23- Ongeza elimu ya dini yako kwa kujifunza Tafsiyr ya Qur-aan, Hadiyth, Fiqhi n.k. upate kuongeza Taqwa.

24-Sikiiza mawaidha japo moja kwa siku kwani kusikiliza kunaleta taathira kubwa ya kuongeza Iymaan na Ucha Mungu.

25-Jiepushe na marafiki waovu na vikao vyao na ungamana na marafiki wema na vikao vya kheri.

26-Usipoteze muda wako kutazama televisheni vipindi visivyokupa faida na dini yako, bali tumia wakati wako kwa yatakayokuongezea elimu na ucha Mungu.

27-Usiharibu Swawm yako kwa kunena ya upuuzi, au Ghiybah (kusengenya), au kubishana au kupandisha sauti. Jizuie unapokuwa na hamaki.

28-Fika Msikitini mapema zaidi, kwani hivyo ni dalili ya hamu na mapenzi ya ‘Ibaadah na kuwa karibu na Mola wako.

29-Waamrishe na kuwafunza mema ya dini yao walio katika majukumu yako; mke, mume, watoto, ndugu, jamaa n.k. kwani wako karibu yako zaidi na kukutii.

30-Usijaze tumbo sana katika Suhuur (daku) kwani itakufanya uwe mvivu na ushindwe kukaa macho nyakati za asubuhi na mchana na ushindwe kufanya ‘Ibaadah vizuri na kusoma sana Qur-aan.

31-Usijaze tumbo sana katika iftwaar (kufuturu) kwani itakushinda kusimama Qiyaamul-Layl au kuzingatia Aayah za Qur-aan zinaposomwa na Imaam.

32-Punguza kwenda madukani/sokoni khaswa kumi la mwisho kwani utakosa kheri na thawabu nyingi zilizomo katika masiku hayo ya thamani kubwa.

33-Tilia hima kubwa kuswali Qiyaamul-Layl kumi la mwisho upate Laylatul-Qadr, usiku ambao ‘Ibaadah yake ni bora kuliko miezi elfu.

34-Jitahidi ufanye I’tikaaf Msikitini katika kumi la mwisho japo siku chache, upate fadhila zake na uchume mema mengi pamoja na kupata Laylatul-Qadr.

35-Tambua kwamba siku ya ‘Iyd ni siku ya kumshukuru Mola wako na sio siku ya kutenda yale uliyojizuia ya maovu katika Ramadhaan.

36-Siku ya ‘Iyd , wafanyie wema wazazi, watembelee ndugu, jamaa na marafiki kuboresha uhusiano wako nao.

37-Usiache kutoa Zakatul-Fitwr – wakumbuke maskini, yatima na wanaohitaji na wasaidie na kuwagawia chochote wabakie katika furaha.

38-Tamka Takbiyrah siku ya ‘Iyd kwa sauti unapokwenda Msikitini ili kuwakumbusha wengine wanaokwenda au kufuatana nawe ili nawe waweze kupiga Takbiyrah hizo.

39-Weka azma baada ya Ramadhaan kujiendeleza katika hali ya ‘Ibaadah uliyokuwa nayo katika Ramadhaan, ukifanya hivyo itakuwa ni dalili ya kukubaliwa Swawm yako.

40- Funga Sita Shawwaal upate thawabu za Swawm ya mwaka mzima.

at 1:04 AM Posted by UDOMSA

—————————————————————————-